- Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a biphasic aggressive high-grade endometrial cancer in which the sarcoma element has de-differentiated from the carcinoma element. UCS is considered a rare tumor, but its incidence has gradually increased in recent years (annual percent change from 2000 to 2016 1.7%, 95% confidence interval 1.2–2.2) as has the proportion of UCS among endometrial cancer, exceeding 5% in recent years. UCS typically affects the elderly, but in recent decades patients became younger. Notably, a stage-shift has occurred in recent years with increasing nodal metastasis and decreasing distant metastasis.
- Given the current lack of effective screening for ovarian cancer, surgical removal of at-risk tissue is the most successful strategy to decrease risk of cancer development. However, the optimal timing of surgery and tissues to remove, as well as the appropriate patients to undergo preventive procedures are poorly understood. In this review, we first discuss the origin and precursors of ovarian epithelial carcinomas, focusing on high-grade serous carcinomas and endometriosis-associated carcinomas, which cause the majority of the mortality and incidence of ovarian cancer.