- Placental site trophoblastic tumor [PSTT] and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor [ETT] are the rarest gestational trophoblastic neoplasias, developing from intermediate trophoblast of the implantation site and chorion leave, respectively. PSTT and ETT share some clinical-pathological features, such as slow growth rates, early stage at presentation, relatively low βhCG levels and poor response to chemotherapy. The mortality rate ranges from 6.5% to 27% for PSTT and from 10% to 24.2% for ETT. Advanced stage, long interval between antecedent pregnancy and diagnosis, and presence of clear cells are the independent prognostic variables for PSTT, and they may be similar for ETT.
- Primary melanomas originating from the gynecological tract are rare and aggressive cancers. The vulva is the most frequent site (70%), followed by vagina and more rarely by cervix. The clinical outcome of patients with female genital tract melanoma is very poor, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 37–50% for vulvar, 13–32% for vaginal, and approximately 10% for cervical melanoma. In this systematic review, we analyzed the pathogenesis and the different factors influencing the prognosis of melanomas of the lower genital tract, with particular emphasis on biologic variables that may influence new therapeutic approaches.