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Financial toxicity of surgical treatment for gynecological cancer: A growing malignancy

      The risk of financial toxicity from cancer care is rising as the rapidly growing cancer patient population suffers from more costly, albeit more personalized and advanced, cancer treatments; this burden is disproportionately felt in vulnerable populations [
      • Shah K.
      • Zafar S.Y.
      • Chino F.
      Role of financial toxicity in perpetuating health disparities.
      ]. As commonly understood, financial toxicity involves three domains of hardship: material (financial losses due to out-of-pocket expenses and missed work), psychological (emotional distress or concerns regarding costs of care), and behavioral (skipping medications or appointments as financial strategies) [
      • Altice C.K.
      • Banegas M.P.
      • Tucker-Seeley R.D.
      • Yabroff K.R.
      Financial hardships experienced by cancer survivors: a systematic review.
      ]. As a manifestation of financial hardship, financial toxicity has been implicated in severe downstream consequences, including increased risk of bankruptcy and even early mortality [
      • Ramsey S.D.
      • Bansal A.
      • Fedorenko C.R.
      • et al.
      Financial insolvency as a risk factor for early mortality among patients with cancer.
      ]. Comprehensive research is needed to discern who is at highest risk of financial toxicity and how to adequately address and prevent its deleterious effects.
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