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Contemporary management of ovarian germ cell tumors and remaining controversies

      Highlights

      • Ovarian GCTs are rare tumors of the ovary with favorable outcomes.
      • Risk classification systems for ovarian and pediatric GCT have been proposed to refine post-operative management.
      • GYN, pediatric, and medical oncologist collaboration is needed to prospectively evaluate clinical decisions.

      Abstract

      Ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare in adults, but are more common in adolescents and young adults. Contemporary management of ovarian GCTs is evolving as collaboration among pediatric, medical, and gynecologic oncologists increases, and studies increasingly incorporate female adult patients. Despite an improved understanding of ovarian GCT, many questions remain. Areas of continued controversy include which stage I ovarian GCTs and immature teratomas can be observed without adjuvant therapy, appropriate risk classification for ovarian GCT, surveillance strategies, and optimal therapy for recurrence. These topics as well as active areas of clinical investigation are discussed.

      Keywords

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